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Another example of the formation of a new complex discipline is hematology, which studies the blood system. Important stages in its development are associated with the development of new research methods, in particular, bone marrow puncture (MI Arinkin, USSR, 1927), radioisotope methods (L. Light, Great Britain, 1952), and others. Application of the method of cultivation of hematopoietic tissue allowed A. A. Maksimov in the 1920s to develop a unitary theory of hematopoiesis, according to which the ancestor of all forms of blood cells is a lymphocyte-like cell; this theory is being confirmed in modern morphological studies of the so-called stem cells.
Major practical advances in this branch of therapy are the treatment of so-called malignant anemia with raw liver (W.P. Murphy and J.R. Minot, USA, 1926) and vitamin B 12, as well as combined cytostatic therapy of Leukemia. Hematology is one of the clinical disciplines where the methods of natural sciences are most widely used - mathematical, genetic and others.
The intensive development of surgery went in various directions. All the increasing scale of wars led to the formation of military field surgery, the growth of traumatism - the development of traumatology and orthopedics. The work of V.P. Filatov in the field of plastic surgery has received worldwide recognition. The works of H. W. Cushing, W. Penfield, A. L. Polenov, N. N. Burdenko and others contributed to the formation of neurosurgery. The development of surgical methods for treating diseases of the genitourinary system (in Russia by S.P. Fedorov and others) led to the budding of urology.
Microbiology developed rapidly. In 1921 A. Kalmet and C. Guerin proposed a vaccine against tuberculosis. In the future, the method of specific prevention of infectious diseases with the help of vaccines and sera was of decisive importance in the fight against diphtheria, poliomyelitis and some other infections. The scientific basis of the fight against infectious diseases was the research of D.K.Zabolotny, V. Khavkin and others on the epidemiology of plague, cholera, anthrax and typhoid fever, the development of the doctrine of leptospirosis (See Leptospirosis), rickettsioses (See Rickettsioses) and much more.