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Another example of the formation of a new complex discipline is hematology, which studies the blood system. Important stages in its development are associated with the development of new research methods, in particular, bone marrow puncture (MI Arinkin, USSR, 1927), radioisotope methods (L. Light, Great Britain, 1952), and others. Application of the method of cultivation of hematopoietic tissue allowed A. A. Maksimov in the 1920s to develop a unitary theory of hematopoiesis, according to which the ancestor of all forms of blood cells is a lymphocyte-like cell; this theory is being confirmed in modern morphological studies of the so-called stem cells.

Major practical advances in this branch of therapy are the treatment of so-called malignant anemia with raw liver (W.P. Murphy and J.R. Minot, USA, 1926) and vitamin B 12, as well as combined cytostatic therapy of Leukemia. Hematology is one of the clinical disciplines where the methods of natural sciences are most widely used - mathematical, genetic and others.

The intensive development of surgery went in various directions. All the increasing scale of wars led to the formation of military field surgery, the growth of traumatism - the development of traumatology and orthopedics. The work of V.P. Filatov in the field of plastic surgery has received worldwide recognition. The works of H. W. Cushing, W. Penfield, A. L. Polenov, N. N. Burdenko and others contributed to the formation of neurosurgery. The development of surgical methods for treating diseases of the genitourinary system (in Russia by S.P. Fedorov and others) led to the budding of urology.


In 1923-30 AV Vishnevsky developed a method of local anesthesia with novocaine. We continued to improve the methods of anesthesia, which became more effective and safer; in the 2nd quarter of the 20th century, anesthesiology emerged as an independent specialty. Improvement of methods of anesthesia was facilitated by the use of drugs Curare, relaxing muscles, the method of hypothermia (see Hypothermia), developed experimentally, and then introduced into the clinic by A. Labori and P. Yugenard (France, 1949-54), and others.

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Modern anesthesia and antibiotic therapy ensured the development of heart and lung surgery. S. S. Bryukhonenko designed an artificial blood circulation apparatus (1925), which was successfully used to remove experimental animals from the state of clinical death and during heart operations in the experiment. Modern models of heart-lung machines (AIC) are used in operations on the so-called open heart of a person.

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The successes of cardiac surgery, the foundations of which were laid by H. Sutter, R. Brock (Great Britain), C. Bailey, D. Harken (USA) in the 2nd half of the 40s, led to the fact that the traditionally "therapeutic" group of congenital and rheumatic heart disease (see. Heart defects) began to be treated equally to surgical diseases. The development of cardiac surgery in the USSR is associated with the names of A. N. Bakulev, P. A. Kupriyanov, B. V. Petrovsky (See Petrovsky), A. A. Vishnevsky (See Vishnevsky), E. N. Meshalkin and others. Surgery of the abdominal cavity continued to develop, the major representatives of which in the USSR were I.I.Grekov, S.I. Spasokukotsky, A.V. Martynov, S.S.Yudin, A.G. Savinykh and many others.

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At the beginning of the 20th century, oncology was formed, the founders of which in the USSR were N.N.Petrov and P.A. Herzen. In 1903 the French scientist A. Borrell put forward the viral theory of Cancer; in 1911, F. Rous discovered the chicken sarcoma virus in the USA; In 1945, L.A. Zilber proposed a virogenetic theory, according to which a tumor virus acts as a transforming agent that hereditarily alters cells - this theory is gaining increasing acceptance.

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Microbiology developed rapidly. In 1921 A. Kalmet and C. Guerin proposed a vaccine against tuberculosis. In the future, the method of specific prevention of infectious diseases with the help of vaccines and sera was of decisive importance in the fight against diphtheria, poliomyelitis and some other infections. The scientific basis of the fight against infectious diseases was the research of D.K.Zabolotny, V. Khavkin and others on the epidemiology of plague, cholera, anthrax and typhoid fever, the development of the doctrine of leptospirosis (See Leptospirosis), rickettsioses (See Rickettsioses) and much more.


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